ethylene oxide: effects on humans

Residues in medical equipment that has been sterilized with ethylene oxide and insufficiently aerated can migrate into tissues and blood, producing primarily local effects. Effect of concentration—time parameters on sister-chromatid exchanges induced in rabbit lymphocytes by ethylene oxide inhalation. Download Citation | [Effects of ethylene oxide and propylene oxide on human health] | To study the hazards of demulsifier production process. Please check your email for instructions on resetting your password. Ethylene Oxide (ETO) as a Major Cause of Anaphylactoid Reactions in Dialysis (A review). Gas/air mixtures are explosive. SUMMARY AND EVALUATION 2.1 Human Exposure to Ethylene Oxide Human exposure occurs mainly through inhalation in sterilization facilities and in production plants. The Interaction between Epidemiology and Animal Studies in Industrial Toxicology. It also increases the risk of breast cancer in women. Perspectives in Basic and Applied Toxicology. Peripheral nerve damage of impairment incidence rate was 40.4%, significantly higher than that in … profile for ethylene oxide, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. It is also used as a fumigant in certain agricultural products and as a sterilant for medical equipment and supplies. The genotoxic effects of three important aliphatic epoxides, ethylene oxide (EtO), propylene oxide (PO) and the halogenated epoxide epichlorohydrin (ECH), are described. The incidence of Achilles's tendon reflection, knee jerk slacking up, chronic pharyngitis, coryza, acne, hair lose and pneumonia were significantly higher in study group than that in control group (P <0.01). Chronic (long-term) exposure to ethylene oxide in humans can cause However, these epoxides did not affect substantially the G 2 /M progression. Ethylene oxide is a known mutagen as indicated by short‐term testing in vitro and in vivo. Sister-chromatid exchanges and chromosome aberrations in lymphocytes from monkeys exposed to ethylene oxide and propylene oxide by inhalation. NO open flames, NO sparks and NO smoking. Because ethylene oxide destroys DNA, it can increase the risk of certain cancers. Genetic Bioassay Data on Some Known or Suspected Human Carcinogens. These clinics specialize in 2005; 23(1):6-8 (ISSN: 1001-9391) Sun LL; Zhang FQ. Ethylene oxide gas may produce immediate local irritation of the skin, eyes, and upper respiratory tract. HOW TO DETERMINE IF YOU ARE BEING EXPOSED … Within this group of symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals, chronic and incidental exposure was documented by clinical history. Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported by your browser. ETHYLENE OXIDE: ICSC: 0155: 1,2-Epoxyethane Oxirane Dimethylene oxide: July 2015: CAS #: 75-21-8: UN #: 1040 EC Number: 200-849-9 ACUTE HAZARDS PREVENTION FIRE FIGHTING; FIRE & EXPLOSION: Extremely flammable. Vol. Ethylene oxide caused dose-related increases in the frequency of he-moglobin adducts in exposed humans and rodents. Incidental exposure may also increase sister chromatid exchange. The major effects seen in workers exposed to ethylene oxide at low levels for several months or years are irritation of the eyes, skin, and mucous membranes and problems in the functioning of the brain and nerves. 1. Ethylene Oxide 75-21-8 Hazard Summary The major use for ethylene oxide is as a chemical intermediate in industry. Short-Term Bioassays in the Analysis of Complex Environmental Mixtures IV. At high concentrations, it may cause an immediate or delayed accumulation of fluid in the lungs. In the reverse experiment, the cells were pretreated with EtO and then exposed to γ-rays. Ethylene oxide: An overview of toxicologic and epidemiologic research. Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis. 1 Effects of Nitinol Surface Treatments and Ethylene Oxide Sterilization on Human Lymphocyte Proliferation. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has determined that ethylene oxide is carcinogenic to humans. They are based on selected national or regional evaluation documents or on existing EHCs. Ethylene oxide. In some persons, ethylene oxide exposure may result in allergic sensitization, and future exposure may cause hives or a life-threatening allergic reaction. used ethylene oxide as a sterilant (Norman et al. It was found that G 1 arrest is induced by these epoxides 6–18 h after the treatment at doses above 5, 3, and 0.5 mMh for EtO, PO, and ECH, respectively. REASON FOR CITATION * Ethylene is on the Hazardous Substance List because it is cited by ACGIH, DOT, DEP, NFPA and EPA. Effect of sample holding, cryopreservation, and storage on the human lymphocyte cytogenetic test. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health. Ethylene oxide has besides its toxic reaction a mutagenic effect upon human fibroblasts. The International Agency for Research on Cancer classifies ethylene oxide into group 1, meaning it is a proven carcinogen. The Use of Human Cells for the Evaluation of Risk from Physical and Chemical Agents. Ethylene oxide is a known mutagen as indicated by short-term testing in vitro and in vivo. Studies on Mechanisms of Carcinogenesis Ethylene oxide is a direct-acting alkylating agent that forms adducts with biological macromolecules, including hemoglobin and DNA. Ethylene oxide [MAK Value Documentation, 1993]. IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. Detection of Effects of Mutagens in Human Populations. May harm the nervous system. Ethylene Oxide (EtO) is a common gas used for low temperature sterilization. Chronic ethylene oxide exposure may increase the risk of cataracts in humans. It dissolves easily in water.Ethylene oxide is a man-made chemical that is used primarily to make ethylene glycol (a chemical used to make antifreeze and polyester). recognizing, evaluating, and treating illnesses resulting from exposure to hazardous substances. Fruit Ripening 2. It is also an irritant to skin and the respiratory tract, and inhaling the vapors may cause the lungs to fill with fluid several hours after exposure. Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi. Although humans and animals may differ in their susceptibility to specific chemical compounds, any substance that produces cancer in experimental animals should a… The MAK‐Collection for Occupational Health and Safety. Inhibition of Root Growth 6. Liteplo and M.E. The physiological effects are: 1. Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis. Chromosome aberrations in individuals occupationally exposed to ethylene oxide, and in a large control population. 1.3 How can ethylene oxide enter and leave my body? Toxicological 1 Effects of Nitinol Surface Treatments and Ethylene Oxide Sterilization on Human Lymphocyte Proliferation. An Evaluation of Possible Effects on Health Following Exposure To Ethylene Oxide. Ethylene Oxide 75-21-8 Hazard Summary The major use for ethylene oxide is as a chemical intermediate in industry. Adverse health effects of ethylene oxide and occupational exposure limits. Ethylene oxide (EO) is widely used in the health care industry as a gas sterilant for medical products that cannot withstand the high temperature and humidity associated with conventional steam sterilization. Chronic (long-term) exposure to ethylene oxide in humans can cause They consist of … Inhalation of ethylene oxide can produce CNS depression, and in extreme cases, respiratory distress and coma. Individual Susceptibility to Genotoxic Agents in the Human Population. Four chronically exposed persons who reported upper respiratory and neurologic symptoms were studied in some detail. ToxFAQs™ for Ethylene Oxide. Its reproductive effects on humans have not been well studied, but it is considered probable that ethylene oxide exposure has similar effects on human reproduction. Janice W. Yager, Effect of concentration—time parameters on sister-chromatid exchanges induced in rabbit lymphocytes by ethylene oxide inhalation, Mutation Research/Environmental Mutagenesis and Related Subjects, 10.1016/0165-1161(87)90076-8, 182, 6, (343-352), (1987). It is also used as a fumigant in certain agricultural products and as a sterilant for medical equipment and supplies. Detection of sister chromatid exchanges induced by volatile genotoxicants. Working off-campus? Ethylene oxide is known to be a human carcinogen based on evidence from studies in humans and experimental animals and from supporting mechanistic data. Journal of Toxicology: Clinical Toxicology. Effects from short-term exposure to high levels of ethylene oxide in humans can include central nervous system depression and irritation of the eyes and mucous membranes. 1, 3-butadiene, ethylene oxide and vinyl halides (vinyl fluoride, vinyl chloride and vinyl bromide). Chronic (long-term) exposure to EtO in humans can cause irritation of the eyes, skin, nose, throat, and lungs, and damage to … Sister chromatid exchanges were studied in lymphocytes cultured from exposed individuals as well as comparable controls. 1.2 How might I be exposed to ethylene oxide? Toxicological Profile for Ethylene Oxide. Two different dose rates of γ-rays were used: a low dose rate (LDR, 0.66 Gy/min) and a high dose rate (HDR, 10 Gy/min). In severe cases, symptoms may include muscle weakness, loss of feeling or prickly sensation in the hands, feet, arms or legs, clumsiness and paralysis. 0.2.1 SUMMARY OF EXPOSURE. ETHYLENE OXIDE: HAZARD CHARACTERIZATION AND EXPOSURE–RESPONSE ANALYSIS. ET has not produced evidence of cancer in laboratory animals and is “not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans” (IARC, Group 3). Historically, ethylene glycol has been commercially produced on a large-scale ba-sis by hydration of ethylene oxide. A) Early signs and symptoms of exposure to ethylene oxide (ETO) may include eye, nose, and throat irritation and noticing a sweet or peculiar taste in the mouth. The following points highlight the eleven major physiological effects of ethylene. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. The acute (short-term) effects of ethylene oxide in humans consist mainly of central nervous system (CNS) depression and irritation of the eyes and mucous membranes. 1.6 Is there a medical test to determine whether I have been exposed to ethylene oxide? ETHYLENE OXIDE Please note that the layout and pagination of this pdf file are not identical to those of the printed CICAD First draft prepared by R.G. Ethylene oxide is a flammable gas with a somewhat sweet odor. Ethylene oxide: Evidence of human chromosomal effects. Chromosome analysis of lymphocytes from workers at an ethylene oxide plant. Sister chromatid exchanges induced in rabbit lymphocytes by ethylene oxide after inhalation exposure. Ethylene oxide has caused statistically significant increases in mononuclear cell leukemia in female Fischer 344 rats. and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. 2. Chromosomal aberrations in mouse lymphocytes exposed in vivo and in vitro to aliphatic epoxides. 1.4 How can ethylene oxide affect my health? Authors. [Article in Chinese] Sun LL(1), Zhang FQ. Triple Response 4. Ethylene oxide (EtO), propylene oxide (PO), and epichlorohydrin (ECH) strongly influenced the G 1 /S progression in human diploid fibroblasts, VH-10. Occupational exposure can occur during ethylene oxide gas sterilization of materials for hospital and other use. Perspectives on Biologically Based Cancer Risk Assessment. Applications of Genetic Toxicology to Human and Environmental Monitoring. The measured maximum concentration of ethylene oxide in the sterilizer room was 36 ppm (within standards set by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration). Ethylene oxide causes acute poisoning, accompanied by the following symptoms: slight heartbeat, muscle twitching, flushing, headache, diminished hearing, acidosis, vomiting, dizziness, transient loss of consciousness and a sweet taste in the mouth. In animals, ethylene-oxide can cause numerous reproductive effects, including mutations and a higher rate of miscarriages. Ethylene oxide (EtO) is produced in large volumes and is primarily used as an intermediate in the production of several industrial chemicals, the most notable of which is ethylene glycol. Harmful effects of ethylene oxide on humans, stringent government regulation guiding the application of ethylene oxide on polyester fiber and TEP resin and rise in health issues are the significant factors expected to obstruct the growth of global ethylene oxide market during the forecast period. Ethylene oxide causes acute poisoning, accompanied by a variety of symptoms. Review of the mutagenicity of ethylene oxide. OBJECTIVE: To study the hazards of demulsifier production process. Ethylene oxide is an alkylating agent; it has irritating, sensitizing and narcotic effects. The NTP brief is intended to provide clear, balanced, scientifically sound information on the potential for ethylene glycol exposures to result in adverse effects on human 74, no. Demineralized human bone used as an autologous bone graft substitute is ethylene oxide sterilized, which is reported to reduce the bone's osteoinductive potential. October 1, 2020 By Nancy Crotti. 3. Protective effect of low doses in mutagenesis with ethylene oxide in E. coli. Ethylene oxide is a known mutagen as indicated by short‐term testing in vitro and in vivo. Not supported by your browser mutagenesis with ethylene oxide and propylene oxide World. Inhalation exposure animals and from supporting mechanistic Data as well as comparable controls fundamental question is whether plant production... 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